# LOWER Google Sheets Function [With Quiz]

In Google Sheets the LOWER function outputs the provided text with all lowercase characters.

## LOWER Syntax

=LOWER(text)
• text = the "text" or a cell reference to the text you want to convert to lowercase characters.

This function is useful for converting things that are usually lowercase case (like email addresses and website URLs) to a consistent format.

LOWER, in combination with functions like LEFT and RIGHT, can also be used to make part of some text lowercase.

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## LOWER Function Example

 A B C 1 Text Formula Output 2 PACKAGING@DUNDERMIFFLIN.com =LOWER(A2) packaging@dundermifflin.com 3 www.DunderMifflin.com =LOWER(A3) www.dundermifflin.com 4 WUPHF.com =LOWER(A4) wuphf.com

You can also reference text directly instead of using a cell reference:

=LOWER("PACKAGING@DUNDERMIFFLIN.com")

Will output: packaging@dundermifflin.com

## Using The LOWER Function On A Whole Column

By combining the LOWER function and the ArrayFormula function you can force LOWER to accept more than one argument.

This means you can make multiple cells lowercase, an entire column or row, or even a table with only one formula.

Here's an example using the same data as above:

 A B C 1 Text Formula Output 2 PACKAGING@DUNDERMIFFLIN.com =ArrayFormula(LOWER(A2:A4)) packaging@dundermifflin.com 3 www.DunderMifflin.com www.dundermifflin.com 4 WUPHF.com wuphf.com

All of the text is converted to lowercase characters using a single formula.

## LOWER Errors

The LOWER function is very stable, handling the following without error:

• Blank cells,
• Numbers (returning them as text), and
• Boolean data (returning them as lowercase text)

If you input a range (e.g. A2:A4) without using ArrayFormula it will output one piece of lowercase text if the range crosses the same row or column as the formula's cell.

Otherwise, it will throw a #VALUE! error:

An array value could not be found.

## LOWER Function Quiz

Here's a quick summary of how to use the quiz spreadsheet:

1. Select the required cell while the formula bar is empty

Complete all questions to solidify your understanding of the LOWER function.

LOWER Function Exercises
Enter a formula for each question in the formula bar for the spreadsheet below.
1. Single Cell
In cell B2, enter a formula that change the second piece of text in the list into lowercase. Remember to start your formula with '='.
2. Whole Column
In cell C2, enter a formula that changes every item in the list to lowercase using a range reference. Remember, the LOWER function won't do this by itself.
 A B C 1 Text Single Column 2 PACKAGING@DUNDERMIFFLIN.com 3 www.DunderMifflin.com 4 WUPHF.com

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